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Hieroglyphics

Hieroglyphics found on Egyptian tombs (Necropolis of Thebes, 18th dynasty, 15th century BC)

On these hieroglyphics, dating from the 15 th century BC, the bird is the assumption that the “musical-multilinguistic” has already existed. It is a symbol of music, language and speech. It is the representation of language and communication that has been present since the beginning of the constitution of our civilization.

Musical and linguistic articulation

Everyone can ask themselves the question: what is the role of musical sound in language learning and in education? The lyrics with the musical sense and rhythm guide the phonetic form to the foreign languages ​​that one wishes to acquire. The rhythm falls on the sharing of the syllabic words of the language in which the melody is composed. The unit shows us the linguistic meaning of pronunciation.

A simple melodic form can be memorized by 70% of the subjects by our natural faculty of our unconscious or emotional memory, as well as its almost definitive rhythmic division of a hearing of 3-4 minutes. It is the same with a theme of a foreign language. Phonetically with the impact of rhythm, music has the power of suggestion, facilitating the sense of linguistic articulations. His phonetic awareness and his analytical mind for the benefit of communication, his rhymes and refrains have the ability to fix the vocal memory; it is our musico-plurilinguistic science.

According to Aristotle , as we speak we come closer to form a city. Insofar as we live in society, we speak to exchange, to communicate to others our passions and our needs. Language therefore derives its reason from society. This correlation of language and society explains the conventional character of language, that is to say its foundation by arbitrary rules decreed by man. Language is a system of signs which unites by convention an idea, a concept and a sound, an acoustic image, which would have appeared 2 million years ago. It seems that the language has adapted to the life and psychology of men allowing them to strengthen social cohesion.

Music and human language gradually evolved and came together. Their contribution built the bases of our musico-plurilinguistic process. Music is essential and inseparable from vocal and linguistic production and in the construction of our civilizations, the wisdom of the linguistic and paralinguistic expression of the human being is fundamental. In this way, opening up the possibility of practicing languages ​​with musical sound opens up new avenues, which could contribute to science, psychology, education, which is an intellectual plasticity, among others.

The Indo-European protolanguages 

Distribution of Indo-European languages ​​according to Colin Renfrew

The Indo-European protolanguages all come from the languages ​​we spoke more than 8,000 years old. The findings suggest that these languages ​​were first spoken in West Asia. The debate-question on the origin of Indo-European protolanguages ​​has two hypotheses:

  • did they arrive by migration from warrior peoples?
  • did they arrive by migrations from Anatolian agriculture 8,000 years ago?

The answer is to be given by archaeologists in support of DNA or formal evidence.

Protolanguages ​​split into dialects, which evolved into distinct languages; these have themselves divided.

Family tree of Proto-Indo-European languages ​​of Gamkrelidze and Ivanov

Indo-European roots are roots that could be reconstructed by the comparative method by studying the various Indo-European languages . Half of the world’s population is expressed in the Indo-European superfamily, to be seen in the family tree of M Gamkrelidze and Ivanov (incomplete).

Family tree of Proto-Indo-European languages of Gamkrelidze and Ivanov

American-speaking English has become the most popular language in most countries around the world thanks to the successes of famous singers like Frank Sinatra, Kenny Rogers and many others. US English has become the language of commerce and international relations.

Several generations of archaeologists and linguists have made the revelation of dead languages ​​to analyze how many dead languages ​​have existed during these millennia to create our current linguistic civilization.

An alphabet (from alpha and beta , the first two letters of the Greek alphabet , derived from the Phoenician alphabet ) is a set of symbols intended to represent more or less accurately the phonemes of a language.

Each of these symbols, or graphemes , is also called a “letter”; each letter, in theory, should note a phoneme. Some letters can be given one or more diacritics in order to extend the stock of graphemes if this is insufficient to note the sounds of the language or to avoid ambiguities. Similarly, an alphabet can be extended by the use of digraphs or even additional letters.

Phonetic evolutions

As the phonetic evolutions of a language occur at a different rate from the written evolution, alphabetic writing does not in any way guarantee a one-to-one correspondence between phonemes and graphemes, thus in French, / s / are noted as well c , ç , s , ss , sc or t . Conversely , s can be pronounced / s /, / z / or be silent. Some languages, such as Hungarian, however, have a quasi-phonetic writing. In the majority of cases (except for Hungarian) these are recently written languages ​​whose transcription by means of alphabetic signs has been the subject of a planned search.

The oldest traces of the ancestor of all existing alphabets are in the desert of Sinai around the XV th century BC This alphabet is exclusively consonant . The letters are initially represented by pictograms related to Egyptian hieroglyphics but are used to denote a Semitic language . The first alphabets in history are the Ugaritic alphabet and the linear alphabet (or protosinaitic alphabet), two abjads , moreover, already classified in the Levantine alphabetical order . It is followed by that of the Phoenicians, whose descendants are numerous: both the Arabic alphabet and the Latin alphabet .

Latin syllabic alphabet has 26 letters. Our languages ​​originate from the Proto-Sinaic, Phoenician alphabet, and Arabic and Hebrew derivatives, which created a multiplicity of Latin and Cyrillic alphabets during the historical evolution of thousands of years. The Proto Indo-European language would most likely be our mother tongue. The alphabet has taken a central place in today’s world. It is the most used in the world. The latter is formally used by the UN (United Nations).

Parental languages

By the occupation of Europe, by Rome City State, for several centuries, Latin was the official language of the European continent. The term Romance is said of languages ​​derived from Latin (Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, etc.). What allows us to use the term parent languages ​​is the fact that Latin is contained in languages ​​derived from Latin (cited above), as can be seen in our ISM dictionary (presented at the end), menu words and roots, that some 4000 words are the same (with exceptions) in the 7 languages ​​with their own pronunciation. The roots contained in very many words are separated only by the linguistic expression Romance and German speaking. One of the keys to learning languages ​​is knowledge of the main mechanisms of word formation.It allows us to understand a lot of terms from a relatively small number of lexical elements. The comparison of the root of these words in English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian, shows us that they are indeed the parent languages.

L’Empire romain à son apogée sous Trajan en 117 après J.C.

Legacy of Latin: mother tongue

The Latin is becoming increasingly important with the expansion of the Roman state of II th century BC. BC until the II th century century AD. The official language of the Empire , it spread throughout most of Europe, North Africa and Asia Minor. At the fall of the Western Empire in the V th century , invaders adopt the thinking Roman and the Latin language in order to establish their legitimacy. Throughout the early Middle Ages, although it is not a vernacular language, Latin remains the language of official acts, diplomacy, liturgy and scholarly literature (theology, philosophy, sciences). During the remainder of the Middle Ages, local languages ​​asserted themselves on the literary and domestic levels, while they gave rise to many derived vernacular languages ​​(the Romance languages ) and non-Romance languages ​​(such as English or Gothic). ) borrow vocabulary from him, Latin remains influential at the diplomatic, legal, scientific and philosophical levels.

Latin is reformed to 800 and then to the XI th century on the model of classical Latin, to avoid a drift towards the vernacular languages that were derived. During the Renaissance , the scientific and philosophical function of the Latin language began to decline, as did its diplomatic function ( Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts , 1539). In the Germanic part of Europe (where Roman law remained in force until the end of the Empire), Latin would remain the language of important or scientific publications for longer, while on the French side, enormous efforts are accomplished (especially with Louis XIV) to replace it with a chastised and reworked French. Latin however remains the liturgical and official language of Catholicism ( doctrinal or disciplinary texts , law , etc.).

In the XIX th century , Latin is a privileged language in education as Western European (hours of lectures, writing theses) in the east, although it is not much used by commentators and editors ancient texts. In Belgium, it was “tolerated” the use of the vernacular in universities around 1835. In the XX th century , it is primarily a language of culture, which is still claimed by the Roman Catholic Church since the time of the Roman Empire, although only a few cardinals and theologians actually speak it. It is one of the four official languages of the Vatican State , and partially the language of instruction in the pontifical Roman universities . Secular Latin publications were also produced throughout the twentieth century, such as those of the Russian Communists who published all their botanical works in Latin during the Cold War period. Nowadays, many movements advocate its maintenance as the language of European communication, and use it in particular during congresses. Journals and websites have been published in Latin, while Finnish radio has been broadcasting in Latin three times a week for more than twenty years. The contemporary pronunciation which seems to prevail is that of pronuntiatus restitutus .

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